Computers Knowledge is gaining importance in the Bank Exams of IBPS or SBI and the Database is one of the key components. It’s very essential to know the basics of Databases so that candidates can answer correctly in exams.
What is Database?
The database is an organized collection of structured information, data stored electronically in a computer system. It is sometimes abbreviated as DB. It is usually controlled by DBMS i.e. Database Management System.
It can be searched, referenced, compared, or manipulated with
optimal speed. A database is built and maintained by using a database programming language. The most common database language is SQL.
There are many variations of SQL or Structural Query Language such as Oracle Database uses PL/SQL or Procedural Language for SQL, and a Microsoft database uses T-SQL.
A database is made up of several components. Below are a few common components:
A database contains several schemas, which is a collection of tables of data.
Each table contains multiple columns. The table can have two columns or as many as 4096, depending on the type of stored data.
Data in the table is displayed in a row, which is like rows in a spreadsheet. There can be hundreds or thousands of rows of data in a table.
Each column may contain one or many types of data such as dates, numeric or integer values or alphanumeric values.
Following are the types of Database
- Relational Database
- Centralized Database
- Distributed Database
- Object-Oriented Database
- Operational Database
In the relational database, the relationship between data is relational and data is stored in tabular form of columns and rows.
Each field in a table represents a data value. Structured Query Language is the language used to query RDBMS which includes inserting, updating, deleting, and searching records.
A relational database is the most popular and widely used database. RDBMS has two major advantages. A relational database can be used without having knowledge or training.
Database entries can be modified without giving information about the entire body.
In this the information or data is stored at a centralized location and users from different locations can access this data.
This type of database contains an application procedure that helps the users to access the data even from remote locations.
This type of database is just the opposite of a centralized database concept. This data is not in one place and is distributed at various sites of an organization.
These sites are connected to each other with the help of communication links which helps to access the distributed data easily.
There are two types of Distributed Database
- Homogeneous Distributed Database
- Heterogeneous Distributed Database
Homogeneous Distributed Database
This type of database uses identical database and operating systems.
Heterogeneous Distributed Database
In this type of database, different sites have different operating systems and databases.
This type of database is a collection of object-oriented programming and relational database. An OODB is organized around objects
rather than actions, and data rather than logic. Information is represented in the form of objects, as in object-oriented programming.
An operational database manages and stores data in real-time.
This database stores data inside an enterprise. They can contain data like payroll records, employee data, etc.
In an operational database, records can be added, removed, and modified in real-time.
What is Database Management System?
A database typically requires a database software program mainly known as a Database Management System (DBMS).
A DBMS serves as an interface between the database and its end users, allowing users to retrieve, update, and manage how the information is organized and optimized.
Examples of commonly used DBMS are MySQL, Microsoft Access, Oracle Database, Microsoft SQL Server, etc.
What is MySQL Database?
This database is an open-source relational database management system based on SQL. It was designed and optimized for web applications and can run on any platform.
As new and different requirements emerged with the internet, MySQL became the platform of choice for web developers and web-based applications. The primary feature of MySQL is on-demand flexibility.
What is the use of Database?
Database stores data or information and provides facilities to search for specific records in a given set of data. The database is commonly used in sectors such as hospitals, schools, medical stores, etc. In short, we can’t imagine digital life without a database.